As interesting as we find the sage sayings, perhaps the most fascinating exploration is the people behind the words. As we read their works we cannot help but notice their common sense, connection to the planet, and recognition of family. These important ideas seem to be lost in many of the decisions that are made in the 24/7 ever connected world in which so many of us live and work. We wonder if the next generations of readers will think we were so wise.
Please remember this book is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Please see http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ to learn more about how you may share and adapt the book.
Abenaki Abenaki The Abenaki (Abnaki, Wabanaki, Waponahki) are a tribe of Native American and First Nations people, one of the Algonquian-speaking peoples of northeastern North America. The Abenaki live in the New England region of the United States and Quebec and the Maritimes of Canada, a region called Wabanaki (“Dawn Land”) in the Eastern Algonquian languages. The Abenaki are one of the five members of the Wabanaki Confederacy. “Abenaki” is a linguistic and geographic grouping; historically there was not a strong central authority, but as listed below a large number of smaller bands and tribes who shared many cultural traits.
Anishinaabe The meaning of Anishnaabeg is ‘First’ or ‘Original Peoples’. Another definition – possibly reflecting a traditionalist’s viewpoint with a certain moral dimension – refers to “the good humans”, or good people, meaning those who are on the right road/path given to them by the Creator or Gichi-Manidoo (Great Spirit). The Ojibwe people who moved to what are now the prairie provinces of Canada call themselves Nakawē(-k) and their branch of the Anishinaabe language, Nakawēmowin. (The French ethnonym for the group was the Saulteaux). Particular Anishinaabeg groups have different names from region to region.
Apache Apache is the collective term for several culturally related groups of Native Americans in the United States originally from the Southwest United States. These indigenous peoples of North America speak a Southern Athabaskan (Apachean) language, which is related linguistically to the languages of Athabaskan speakers of Alaska and western Canada.
Arapaho The Arapaho (in French: Arapahos, Gens de Vache) are a tribe of Native Americans historically living on the plains of Colorado and Wyoming. They were close allies of the Cheyenne tribe and loosely aligned with the Lakota and Dakota. The Arapaho language, Heenetiit, is an Algonquian language closely related to Gros Ventre (Ahe/A’ananin), whose people are seen as an early offshoot of the Arapaho. Blackfeet and Cheyenne are the other Algonquian-speakers on the Plains, but their languages are quite different from Arapaho.
Arikara Arikara (also Sahnish, The Arikara call themselves Sahnish, Arikaree, Ree) are a group of Native Americans in North Dakota. Today they are enrolled in the federally recognized tribe the Three Affiliated Tribes of the Fort Berthold Reservation. (see Three Affiliated Tribes entry below)
Assiniboine The Assiniboine or Assiniboin people, also known as the Hohe and known by the endonym Nakota (or Nakoda or Nakona), are a Siouan First Nations/Native American people originally from the Northern Great Plains of North America. Today, they are centered in present-day Saskatchewan, but they have also populated parts of Alberta, southwestern Manitoba, northern Montana and western North Dakota. They were well known throughout much of the late 18th and early 19th century.
Blackfoot The Blackfoot Confederacy or Niitsítapi (meaning “original people”) is the collective name of three First Nations bands in Alberta, Canada and one Native American tribe in Montana, United States. Historically, the member peoples of the Confederacy were nomadic bison hunters, who ranged across large areas of the northern Great Plains of Western North America, specifically the semi-arid short-grass prairie ecological region. In the first half of the 18th century, they adopted horses and firearms acquired from European-descended traders and their Cree and Assiniboine resellers. With these new tools, the Blackfoot expanded their territory at the expense of neighboring peoples. Through the use of horses, Blackfoot and other Plains peoples harvested bison at a much-accelerated rate.
Cherokee The Cherokee are a Native American people historically settled in the Southeastern United States (principally Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and East Tennessee). They speak an Iroquoian language. In the 19th century, historians and ethnographers recorded their oral tradition that told of the tribe having migrated south in ancient times from the Great Lakes region, where other Iroquoian-speaking peoples were. They began to have contact with European traders in the 18th century.
Cheyenne The Cheyenne people are an indigenous people of the Great Plains, and are considered to be part of the Algonquian language–speaking people. The Cheyenne are made up of two Native American ethnic groups, the Só’taeo’o (more commonly spelled as Suhtai or Sutaio) and the Tsétsêhéstâhese (also spelled Tsitsistas). These tribes merged in the early 19th century. Today the Cheyenne people are split into two federally recognized groups: Southern Cheyenne, who are enrolled in the Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes in Oklahoma, and the Northern Cheyenne, who are enrolled in the Northern Cheyenne Tribe of the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation in Montana.
Chippewa – see Ojibwe
Chiricahua Chiricahua is a group of Apache Native Americans who live in the Southwest United States. At the time of European encounter, they were living in 15 million acres (61,000 km2) of territory in southwestern New Mexico and southeastern Arizona in the United States, and in northern Sonora and Chihuahua in Mexico. Today, only two tribes of the Chiricahua Apache located in the United States are federally recognized: the Fort Sill Apache Tribe, located near Apache, Oklahoma; and the Chiricahua tribe located on the Mescalero Apache reservation near Ruidoso, New Mexico.
Comanche The Comanche (Comanche: Nʉmʉnʉʉ) are a Plains Indian tribe whose historic territory, known as Comancheria, consisted of present day eastern New Mexico, southeastern Colorado, southwestern Kansas, western Oklahoma, and most of northwest Texas. The Comanche people are federally recognized as the Comanche Nation, headquartered in Lawton, Oklahoma.Post-contact, the Comanches were hunter-gatherers with a horse culture. There may have been as many as 45,000 Comanches in the late 18th century. They were the dominant tribe on the Southern Plains and often took captives from weaker tribes during warfare, selling them as slaves to the Spanish and later Mexican settlers. They also took thousands of captives from the Spanish, Mexican and American settlers.
Conestoga – see Susquehannock
Crow The Crow, called the Apsáalooke in their own Siouan language, or variants including Absaroka, are Native Americans, who in historical times lived in the Yellowstone River valley, which extends from present-day Wyoming, through Montana and into North Dakota, where it joins the Missouri River. Today, they are enrolled in the federally recognized Crow Tribe of Montana. The Crow were generally friendly with the whites and managed to retain a large reservation of over 9300 sq km despite territorial losses.
Dakota The Dakota people are an indigenous people of the Great Plains of Canada and the United States. They are one of the three main subcultures of the Sioux people, and are usually divided into the Eastern Dakota and the Western Dakota. The Eastern Dakota are the Santee (Isáŋyathi or Isáŋathi; “Knife”), who reside in the extreme east of the Dakotas, Minnesota and northern Iowa. The Western Dakota are the Yankton and the Yanktonai (Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋ and Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋna; “Village-at-the-end” and “Little village-at-the-end”), who reside in the Minnesota River area. The Yankton-Yanktonai are collectively also referred to by the endonym Wičhíyena, and have in the past been erroneously classified as Nakota.
Delaware – see Lenape
Duwamish The Duwamish are a Lushootseed Native American tribe in western Washington, and the indigenous people of metropolitan Seattle, where they have been living since the end of the last glacial period (c. 8000 BCE, 10,000 years ago). The Duwamish tribe descends from at least two distinct groups from before intense contact with people of European ancestry—the People of the Inside (the environs of Elliott Bay) and the People of the Large Lake (Lake Washington)—and continues to evolve both culturally and ethnically. By historic language, the Duwamish are (Skagit-Nisqually) Lushootseed; Lushootseed is a Salishan language.
Ho-Chunk The Ho-Chunk, also known as Winnebago, are a Siouan-speaking tribe of Native Americans, native to the present-day states of Wisconsin, Minnesota, and parts of Iowa and Illinois. Today the two federally recognized Ho-Chunk tribes, the Ho-Chunk Nation of Wisconsin and Winnebago Tribe of Nebraska, have territory primarily within the states included in their names.
Hopi The Hopi are a federally recognized tribe of Native American people, who primarily live on the 2,531.773 sq mi (6,557.26 km2) Hopi Reservation in northeastern Arizona. As of 2010, there were 18,327 Hopi in the United States, according to the 2010 census. The Hopi language is one of the 30 of the Uto-Aztecan language family. The Hopi Reservation is entirely surrounded by the much larger Navajo Reservation. The two nations used to share the Navajo-Hopi Joint Use Area, but this was a source of conflict. The partition of this area, commonly known as Big Mountain, by Acts of Congress in 1974 and 1996, has also resulted in long-term controversy.
Huron – see Wyandot
Inuit Inuit (Inuktitut: ᐃᓄᐃᑦ, “the people”) are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada, and the United States. Inuit is a plural noun; the singular is Inuk. The Inuit languages are classified in the Eskimo-Aleut family. In the United States, the term “Eskimo” was commonly used to describe Inuit, and other Arctic peoples, because it includes both of Alaska’s Yupik and Iñupiat peoples while “Inuit” is not proper or accepted as a term for the Yupik. No collective term exists for both peoples other than “Eskimo.”However, Aboriginal peoples in Canada and Greenland view the name as pejorative, so “Inuit” has become more common.
Iowa The Iowa (also spelled Ioway), also known as the Báxoje, are a Native American Siouan people. Today they are enrolled in either of two federally recognized tribes, the Iowa Tribe of Oklahoma and the Iowa Tribe of Kansas and Nebraska. With the Missouria and the Otoe, the Ioway are the Chiwere-speaking peoples, claiming the Ho-Chunks as their “grandfathers.” Their estimated population of 1,100 (in 1760) dropped to 800 (in 1804), a decrease caused mainly by smallpox, to which they had no natural immunity. In 1824, the Iowa were moved from Iowa to reservations in Brown County, Kansas, and Richardson County, Nebraska. Bands of Iowa moved to Indian Territory in the late 19th century and settled south of Perkins, Oklahoma, becoming the Iowa Tribe of Oklahoma.
Iroquois The Iroquois, also known as the Haudenosaunee, or the Six Nations, (the Five Nations and Five Nations of the Iroquois before 1722), and to themselves the Goano’ganoch’sa’jeh’seroni or Ganonsyoni. A historically powerful and important northeast Native American people who formed the Iroquois Confederacy and today make up the Six Nations. Many prominent individuals are Iroquois or have Iroquois ancestry. A melting pot culture, vibrant today in language, culture, and independent governance. In 2010, more than 45,000 enrolled Six Nations people lived in Canada, and about 80,000 in the United States.
Kiowa The Kiowa are a nation of American Indians of the Great Plains. They migrated from western Montana southward into the Rocky Mountains in Colorado in the 17th and 18th centuries, and finally into the Southern Plains by the early 19th century. In 1867, the Kiowa moved to a reservation in southwestern Oklahoma. Today they are federally recognized as Kiowa Tribe of Oklahoma with headquarters in Carnegie, Oklahoma. The Kiowa language is still spoken today and is part of the Tanoan language family. As of 2011, there are 12,000 members.
Lakota The Lakota people (also known as Teton, Titunwan (“prairie dwellers”),Teton Sioux (“snake, or enemy”) are an indigenous people of the Great Plains of North America. They are part of a confederation of seven related Sioux tribes, the Očhéthi Šakówiŋ or seven council fires, and speak Lakota, one of the three major dialects of the Sioux language. The Lakota are the westernmost of the three Siouan language groups, occupying lands in both North and South Dakota.
Lenape The Lenape are Native American peoples now living in Canada and the United States. They are also called Delaware Indians after their historic territory along the frequently mountainous landscapes flanking the Delaware River watershed.As a result of disruptions and political will of the white population following the American Revolutionary War and later developments such as the oft-voiced attitudes later termed manifest destiny, which in part led to the Indian removals from the eastern United States, the main groups now live in Ontario (Canada), Wisconsin, and Oklahoma.
Lumbee The Lumbee Tribe of North Carolina is a state recognized tribe of approximately 55,000 enrolled members, most of them living in Robeson and the adjacent counties in southeastern North Carolina. The Lumbee Tribe is the largest tribe in North Carolina, the largest tribe east of the Mississippi River and the ninth largest non-federally recognized group in the nation. According to the 2000 US Census report, Pembroke, North Carolina, is made up of 89% Lumbee Indian and the population of Robeson County is almost 40% Lumbee.
Maricopa The Maricopa or Piipaash, are a Native American tribe, who live in the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community and Gila River Indian Community along with the Pima, a tribe with whom the Maricopa have long held a positive relationship. The Maricopa, mostly Xalychidom Piipaash, at the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community are concentrated in Lehi, while the Maricopa at the Gila River Indian Communityare concentrated in Maricopa Colony. The Maricopa are a River Yuman group, formerly living along the banks of the Colorado River.
Miniconjou The Miniconjou (Lakota: Mnikȟówožu, Hokwoju – ‘Plants by the Water’) are a Native American people constituting a subdivision of the Lakota people, who formerly inhabited an area in western present-day South Dakota from the Black Hills in to the Platte River. The contemporary population lives mostly in west-central South Dakota. Perhaps the most famous Miniconjou chief was Touch the Clouds.
Minquass – see Susquehannock
Mohawk The Kanien’kehá:ka or Mohawk people are the most easterly tribe of the Iroquois Confederacy. They are the People of “Ka Nee-en Ka” (or “Flint Stone Place”) and are an Iroquoian-speaking indigenous people of North America. They were historically based in the Mohawk Valley in upstate New York; their territory ranged to present-day southern Quebec and eastern Ontario. Their traditional homeland stretched southward of the Mohawk River, eastward to the Green Mountains of Vermont, westward to the border with the Oneida Nation’s traditional homeland territory, and northward to the St Lawrence River. Their current settlements include areas around Lake Ontario and the St Lawrence River in Canada and New York.
Mohican The Mahican (also Mohican) are an Eastern Algonquian Native American tribe, originally settled in the Hudson River Valley (around Albany, NY) and western New England. After 1680, many moved to Stockbridge, Massachusetts. Since the 1830s, most descendants of the Mahican are located in Shawano County, Wisconsin, where they formed the federally recognized Stockbridge-Munsee Community with Lenape people and have a 22,000-acre (8,900 ha) reservation.
Muskoday The Muskoday First Nation (formerly the John Smith First Nation) is a First Nation in Saskatchewan, Canada, composed of Cree and Saulteaux peoples. The First Nation has a registered population of 1552 people as of December 2007, of which approximately 560 members of the First Nation live on-reserve, and approximately 980 live off-reserve. Muskoday’s territory is located in the aspen parkland biome. It is bordered by the rural municipalities of Birch Hills No. 460 and Prince Albert No. 461.
Navajo The Navajo (Navajo: Diné or Naabeehó) of the Southwestern United States are the largest federally recognized tribe of the United States of America with 300,048 enrolled tribal members. The Navajo Nation constitutes an independent governmental body, which manages the Navajo Indian reservation in the Four Corners area of the United States. The Navajo language is spoken throughout the region with most Navajo capable of speaking English as well. As of 2011, the states with the largest Navajo populations are Arizona (140,263), and New Mexico (108,306). Over three-quarters of the Navajo population reside in these two states.
Nootka The Nuu-chah-nulth, also formerly referred to as the Nootka, Nutka, Aht, Nuuchahnulth, are one of the Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast of Canada. The term ‘Nuu-chah-nulth’ is used to describe fifteen separate but related nations, such as the Nuchatlaht First Nation, whose traditional home is in the Pacific Northwest on the west coast of Vancouver Island. In precontact and early post-contact times, the number of nations was much greater, but smallpox and other consequences of contact resulted in the disappearance of some groups and the absorption of others into neighboring groups.
Nuxalk The Nuxalk people (Nuxalk: Nuxálk), also referred to as the Bella Coola or Bellacoola, are an Indigenous First Nation in Canada, living in the area in and around Bella Coola, British Columbia. Their language is also called Nuxalk. Their tribal government is the Nuxalk Nation. The name “Bella Coola”, often used in academic writing, is not preferred by the Nuxálk; it is thought to be a derivation of the neighboring coastal Heiltsuk people’s name for the Nuxálk, bḷ́xʷlá (rendered plxwlaq’s in Nuxalk orthography), meaning “stranger”.
Oglala Lakota The Oglala Lakota or Oglala Sioux (pronounced [oɡəˈlala], meaning “to scatter one’s own” in Lakota language) are one of the seven subtribes of the Lakota people, who along with the Nakota and Dakota, make up the Great Sioux Nation. A majority of the Oglala live on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota, the eighth-largest Native American reservation in the United States. The Oglala are a federally recognized tribe whose official title is the Oglala Sioux Tribe (previously called the Oglala Sioux Tribe of the Pine Ridge Reservation, South Dakota).
Ojibwe The Ojibwe (also Ojibwa), Anishinaabe, or Chippewa are one of the largest groups of Native American and First Nations Peoples on the North American continent. There are Ojibwe communities in both Canada and the United States. In Canada, they are the second-largest population among First Nations, surpassed only by the Cree. In the United States, they have the fourth-largest population among Native American tribes, surpassed only by the Navajo, Cherokee and Lakota
Omaha The Omaha are a federally recognized Native American tribe that lives on the Omaha Reservation in northeastern Nebraska and western Iowa, United States. They Omaha people migrated to the upper Missouri area and the Plains by the late 17th century from earlier locations in the Ohio River Valley. The Omaha speak a Siouan language of the Dhegihan branch, which is very similar to that spoken by the Ponca. The latter were part of the Omaha before splitting off into a separate tribe in the mid-18th century. They were also related to the Siouan-speaking Osage, Quapaw, and Kansapeoples, who also migrated west under pressure from the Iroquois in the Ohio Valley. After pushing out other tribes, the Iroquois kept control of the area as a hunting ground.
Oneida The Oneida (Onę˙yóteˀ or Onayotekaono, meaning “Upright Stone Place, or standing stone”, Thwahrù·nęʼ in Tuscarora) are a Native American/First Nations people; they are one of the five founding nations of the Iroquois Confederacy in the area of upstate New York. The Iroquois call themselves Haudenosaunee (“The people of the longhouses”) in reference to their communal lifestyle and the construction of their dwellings. After the American Revolutionary War, they were forced to cede all but 300,000 acres (1,200 km2), and were later forced to cede more. Under federal and state pressure, many Oneida resettled in Wisconsin in the early 1800s. Others who had allied with the British had already migrated to Canada.
Onondaga The Onondaga (Onöñda’gega’ or “Hill Place”) People are one of the original five constituent nations of the Iroquois (Haudenosaunee) Confederacy. Their traditional homeland is in and around Onondaga County, New York. Known as Gana’dagwëni:io’geh to the other Iroquois tribes, this name allows people to know the difference when talking about Onondaga in Six Nations, Ontario or near Syracuse, New York. Being centrally located, they were considered the “Keepers of the Fire” (Kayečisnakwe’nì·yu’in Tuscarora) in the figurative longhouse. The Cayuga and Seneca had territory to their west and the Oneida and Mohawk to their east. For this reason, the League of the Iroquois historically met at the Iroquois government’s capital at Onondaga, as indeed the traditional chiefs do today.
Osage The Osage Nation is a Native American Siouan-speaking tribe in the United States that originated in the Ohio River valley in present-day Kentucky. After years of war with the invading Iroquois, the Osage migrated west of the Mississippi River to their historic lands in present-day Arkansas, Missouri, Kansas, and Oklahoma by the mid-17th century. At the height of their power in the early 18th century, the Osage had become the dominant power in their region, controlling the area between the Missouri and Red rivers. They are a federally recognized tribe and based mainly in Osage County, Oklahoma, coterminous with their reservation. Members are found throughout the country.
Paiute Paiute (also Piute) refers to three closely related groups of indigenous peoples of the Great Basin: Northern Paiute of California, Idaho, Nevada and Oregon; Owens Valley Paiute of California and Nevada; and Southern Paiute of Arizona, southeastern California and Nevada, and Utah. The origin of the word Paiute is unclear. Some anthropologists have interpreted it as “Water Ute” or “True Ute”. The Northern Paiute call themselves Numa (sometimes written Numu); the Southern Paiute call themselves Nuwuvi; both terms mean “the people”. The Northern Paiute are sometimes referred to as Paviotso. Early Euro-American settlers often referred to both groups of Paiute as “Diggers” (presumably because of their practice of digging for roots for food). As the Paiute consider the term derogatory, they discourage its use.
Pawnee Pawnee people (also Paneassa, Pari, Pariki) are a Caddoan-speaking Native American tribe. They are federally recognized as the Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma and have four confederated bands: the Chaui, Kitkehakhi, Pitahawirata, and Skidi.Historically, the Pawnee lived along outlying tributaries of the Missouri River: the Platte, Loup and Republican rivers in present-day Nebraska and in northern Kansas. They lived in permanent earth lodge villages where they farmed. They left the villages on seasonal buffalo hunts, using tipis while traveling.
Pima The Pima (or Akimel O’odham also spelled Akimel O’otham – “the kaka , formerly oft simply known as Pima) are a group of Indigenous Americans living in an area consisting of what is now central and southern Arizona. Currently the majority population of the surviving two bands of the Akimel O’odham is based in two reservations – the Keli Akimel O’otham on the Gila River Indian Community (GRIC) and the On’k Akimel O’odham on the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community (SRPMIC).
Plains The Plains Indians are the indigenous peoples who live on the plains and rolling hills of the Great Plains of North America. Their equestrian culture and resistance to domination by Canada and the United States have made the Plains Indians an archetype in literature and art for American Indians everywhere. Plains Indians are usually divided into two broad classifications which overlap to some degree. The first group became fully nomadic and dependent upon the horse during the 18th and 19th centuries, following the vast herds of buffalo, although some tribes occasionally engaged in agriculture; growing tobacco and corn primarily. These include the Blackfoot, Arapaho, Assiniboine, Cheyenne, Comanche, Crow, Gros Ventre, Kiowa, Lakota, Lipan, Plains Apache (or Kiowa Apache), Plains Cree, Plains Ojibwe, Sarsi, Nakoda (Stoney), and Tonkawa.
Ponca The Ponca (Páⁿka iyé: Páⁿka or Ppáⁿkka pronounced) are a Native American people of the Dhegihan branch of the Siouan-language group. There are two federally recognized Ponca tribes: the Ponca Tribe of Nebraska and the Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma. Their traditions and historical accounts suggest they originated as a tribe east of the Mississippi River in the Ohio River valley area and migrated west for game and as a result of Iroquois wars.
Potawatomi The Potawatomi, also spelled Pottawatomie and Pottawatomi (among many variations), are a Native American people of the upper Mississippi River region. They traditionally speak the Potawatomi language, a member of the Algonquian family. In the Potawatomi language, they generally call themselves Bodéwadmi, a name that means “keepers of the fire” and that was applied to them by their Ojibwe brothers. They originally called themselves Neshnabé, a cognate of the word Anishinaabe. The Potawatomi were part of a long-term alliance, called the Council of Three Fires, with the Ojibwe/Jibwe (Chippewa) and Odaawaa/[O]dawa (Ottawa). In the Council of Three Fires, the Potawatomi were considered the “youngest brother.”
Pueblo The Pueblo people are Native American people in the Southwestern United States comprising several different language groups and two major cultural divisions, one organized by matrilineal kinship systems and the other having a patrilineal system. These determine the clan membership of children, and lines of inheritance and descent. Their traditional economy is based on agriculture and trade. At the time of Spanish encounter in the 16th century, they were living in villages that the Spanish called pueblos, meaning “towns”. Of the 21 surviving pueblos in the 21st century, Taos, Acoma, Zuni, and Hopi are the best-known. The main pueblos are located primarily in the present-day states of New Mexico and Arizona.
Santee – see Dakota
Sauk The Sacs or Sauks are a group of Native Americans of the Eastern Woodlands culture group. The Sauk are believed to have had their original territory along the St. Lawrence River. They were driven by pressure from other tribes, especially the Iroquois, to migrate to Michigan, where they settled around Saginaw Bay. Due to the yellow-clay soils found around Saginaw Bay, their autonym was Oθaakiiwaki (often interpreted to mean “yellow-earth”.) The Ojibwe and Ottawa name for the tribe (exonym) was Ozaagii, meaning “those at the outlet”. From the sound of that, the French derived Sac and the English “Sauk”.
Seminole The Seminoles are a Native American people originally of Florida. Today, most Seminoles live in Oklahoma with a minority in Florida; there are three federally recognized tribes and independent groups. The Seminole nation emerged in a process of ethnogenesis out of groups of Native Americans, most significantly Creek from what are now northern Florida, Georgia, and Alabama, who settled in Florida in the early 18th century. The word Seminole is a corruption of cimarrón, a Spanish term for “runaway” or “wild one.”
Seneca The Seneca are a group of indigenous people native to North America. They were the nation located farthest to the west within the Six Nations or Iroquois League in New York before the American Revolution. While exact population figures are unknown, approximately 15,000 to 25,000 Seneca live in Canada, near Brantford, Ontario, at the Six Nations of the Grand River First Nation. They are descendants of Seneca who resettled there, as they had been allies of the British during the American Revolution. Nearly 30,000 Seneca live in the United States, on and off reservations around Buffalo, New York and in Oklahoma.
Shawnee The Shawnee or Shawnee nation (Shaawanwaki, Ša˙wano˙ki and Shaawanowi lenaweeki) are an Algonquian-speaking people native to North America. In colonial times they were a semi-migratory Native American nation, at times inhabiting areas spanning present-day Ohio, Virginia, West Virginia, Western Maryland, South Carolina, Kentucky, Illinois, Indiana, and Pennsylvania in the United States. They were removed to Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River in the 1830s. Today the three federally recognized Shawnee tribes all headquartered in Oklahoma. The United Remnant Band of the Shawnee Nation is a state-recognized tribe based in Ohio, where it has bought some land.
Shoshone The Shoshone or Shoshoni are a Native American tribe with three large divisions: Eastern Shoshone, Wyoming, northern Colorado and Montana; Northern Shoshone, eastern Idaho, western Wyoming, and northeastern Utah; and Western Shoshone, Oregon, Idaho, Utah. They traditionally speak the Shoshoni language, part of the Numic languages branch of the large Uto-Aztecan language family. The Shoshone were sometimes called the Snake Indians by neighboring tribes and early European-Americans.
Sturgeon Lake First Nation The Sturgeon Lake First Nation is located on the eastern shores of Sturgeon Lake (Saskatchewan) about 29 km northwest of Prince Albert, Saskatchewan. The First Nation’s territory consists of one Indian Reserve, Sturgeon Lake Indian Reserve No. 101. It is located in the transition zone between the aspen parkland and boreal forest biomes. The reserve borders the Rural Municipalities of Shellbrook No. 493 and Buckland No. 491, as well as the Little Red River Indian Reserve No. 106C.
Susquehannock The Susquehannock people, also called the Conestoga (by the English) were Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans who lived in areas adjacent to the Susquehanna River and its tributaries from the southern part of what is now New York (and the lands of the Five Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy), through the entire height of East-central and central Pennsylvania (West of the Poconos and the Delaware nations), with lands extending beyond the mouth of the Susquehanna in Maryland along the West bank of the Potomac at the north end of the Chesapeake Bay.
Sweetgrass The Sweetgrass First Nation is a First Nation in Saskatchewan, Canada. Their territory is located 35 kilometers west of Battleford, Saskatchewan. The reserve was established as part of Treaty 6. The Nation is led by Chief Lori Whitecalf. Registered population 1751.
Teton – see Lakota
Three Affiliated Tribes Three Affiliated Tribes, are a Native American group comprising a union of the Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara peoples, whose native lands ranged across the Missouri River basin in the Dakotas. Hardship, losses from infectious disease and forced relocations brought the remnants of the peoples together in the late 19th century. Today, the nation is based at the Fort Berthold Reservation in North Dakota. The Tribe consists of about 13,000 enrolled members. Nearly 4,500 live on the reservation; others live and work elsewhere.
Tsleil-Waututh The Tsleil-Waututh Nation, formerly known as the Burrard Indian Band or Burrard Band, is a First Nations government in the Canadian Province of British Columbia. The Tsleil-Waututh are Coast Salish people who speak the Downriver dialect of the Halkomelem language, and are closely related to but politically separate from the nearby Nation of the Sḵwxwúmesh (Squamish) and Musqueam First Nations. The Tsleil-waututh Nation is a member government of the Naut’samawt Tribal Council, which includes other governments on the upper Sunshine Coast, southeastern Vancouver Island and the Tsawwassen band on the other side of the Vancouver metropolis from the Tsleil-waututh.
Tuscarora The Tuscarora (“hemp gatherers”) are a Native American people of the Iroquoian-language family, with members in New York, Canada, and North Carolina. They coalesced as a people around the Great Lakes, likely about the same time as the rise of the five nations of the historic Iroquois tribes, based in present-day New York. Well before the arrival of Europeans in North America, the Tuscarora had migrated south and settled in the region now known as Eastern Carolina. The most numerous indigenous people in the area, they lived along the Roanoke, Neuse, Tar (Torhunta or Narhontes), and Pamlicorivers in North Carolina. They first encountered European explorers and settlers in North Carolina and Virginia.
Umpqua Umpqua refers to any of several distinct groups of Native Americans that live in present-day south central Oregon in the United States. The Upper Umpqua tribe is represented as the Cow Creek Band of Umpqua Tribe of Indians. The tribe signed a treaty with the U.S. federal government on September 19, 1853. The Upper Umpqua was the first Oregon tribe to sign a federal treaty. The Cow Creek Band spoke the now-extinct Takelma language. The Cow Creek Band has a reservation near the modern-day city of Roseburg, Oregon. The Lower Umpqua tribe is represented in modern times as one of the three Confederated Tribes of Coos, Lower Umpqua and Siuslaw Indians located on the southwest Oregon Pacific coast in the United States. They spoke a language close to Siuslaw.
Ute Ute people are an indigenous people of the Great Basin, now living primarily in Utah and Colorado. There are three Ute tribal reservations: Uintah-Ouray in northeastern Utah (3,500 members); Southern Ute in Colorado (1,500 members); and Ute Mountain which primarily lies in Colorado, but extends to Utah and New Mexico (2,000 members). The name of the state of Utah was derived from the name Ute. The word Ute means “Land of the sun” in their language.”Ute” possibly derived from the Western Apache word “yudah”, meaning “high up”. This has led to the misconception that “Ute” means people high up or mountain people.
Winnebago – see Ho-Chunk
Wyandot The Wyandot people or Wendat, also called Huron, are indigenous peoples of North America. They traditionally spoke Wendat, an Iroquoian language. By the 15th century, the pre-contact Wyandots settled in the area of the north shore of present-day Lake Ontario, before migrating to Georgian Bay. It was in that later location that they first encountered the French explorer Samuel de Champlain in 1615. Today the Wyandot have a reserve in Quebec, Canada. In addition, they have three major settlements, two of which have independently governed, federally recognized tribes, in the United States. Due to differing development of the groups, they speak distinct forms of Wendat and Wyandot languages.
Yurok The Yurok, whose name means “downriver people” in the neighboring Karuk language (also called yuh’ára, or yurúkvaarar in Karuk), are Native Americans who live in northwestern California near the Klamath River and Pacific coast. Their autonym is Olekwo’l meaning “Persons.” Today they live on the Yurok Indian Reservation, on several rancherias, including the Trinidad Rancheria, throughout Humboldt County. They are enrolled in seven different federally recognized tribes today.
Zuni The Zuni (Zuni: A:shiwi; formerly spelled Zuñi) are a federally recognized Native American tribe, one of the Pueblo peoples. Most live in the Pueblo of Zuni on the Zuni River, a tributary of the Little Colorado River, in western New Mexico, United States. Zuni is 55 km (34 mi) south of Gallup, New Mexico. In addition to the reservation, the tribe owns trust lands in Catron County, New Mexico and Apache County, Arizona. They called their homeland Shiwinnaqin.